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Causal Inference - How can one balance covariates when given a small number of covariates?
in Data Science & Statistics by Gold Status (31,925 points)
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When the number of covariates is small, the adjustment can be achieved by exact matching or stratification

Exact matching: for each treated subject, get a control with exact same value of the covariate

Exact matching ensures distributions of covariates in treatment and control groups are exactly the same, thus eliminate bias due to difference in $X$. 

Exact matching is usually infeasible, even with low-dimensional covariates

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