Studies in education as well as data collected from PISA give us a picture of the kinds of schools and classrooms in which cognitive activation thrives. Students in academically-oriented schools (as opposed to vocational schools) reported more exposure to cognitive-activation strategies. Socio-economically advantaged students reported more exposure to these strategies than disadvantaged students; and when cognitive-activation strategies are used, the association with student performance is stronger in advantaged schools than in disadvantaged schools.
If these strategies are so beneficial, why isn't every teacher using them more frequently? PISA data suggest that certain school and student characteristics might be more conducive to using cognitive-activation strategies. These types of teaching strategies emphasise thinking and reasoning for extended periods of time, which may take time away from covering the fundamentals of mathematics. Thus, using cognitive-activation strategies might be easier in schools or classes in which students don't spend as much time focusing on basic concepts. It might also be difficult for a teacher to use cognitive-activation strategies in a class that is frequently disrupted by disorderly student behaviour.