MathsGee Homework Help Q&A - Recent questions and answers in Data Science & Statistics
https://mathsgee.com/qa/data-science
Powered by Question2AnswerAnswered: Define the deductive research approach
https://mathsgee.com/36156/define-the-deductive-research-approach?show=36157#a36157
The deductive research approach scans theory, derives logical conclusions from this theory and presents them in the form of hypothesis (H) and propositions (P), tests them in an empirical setting and then presents its general conclusions based on the corroboration or falsification of its self-generated H/P. The logical sequence of the research is from rule to case to result, (Kovacs \& Spens, 2005). It is based upon the principle that the researcher, through an in-depth literature review, proposes a given connection between different variables in the study. The theory being tested has to undergo a quantitative or qualitative test or a combination of the two, termed as triangulation, (Stentoft Arlbjorn \& Halldorsson, 2002). This is particularly clear in the prototypical computo-representational approach, that is, the system-expert model, in terms of if ... then (with the pattern of the well-known Socratic deductive reasoning: All men are mortals; if \(x\) is a man, then \(x\) is mortal) (Andreewsky \& Bourcier, 2000).Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/36156/define-the-deductive-research-approach?show=36157#a36157Mon, 17 Jan 2022 22:11:22 +0000Interactive Quiz - Are you Data Science Savvy?
https://mathsgee.com/36132/interactive-quiz-are-you-data-science-savvy
<p>Interactive Quiz - Are you Data Science Savvy?</p>
<p> </p>
<p> </p>
<iframe src="https://mathsgee.com/resources/wp-admin/admin-ajax.php?action=h5p_embed&id=79" width="660" height="340" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen="allowfullscreen" title="Are you Data Science Savvy?"></iframe><script src="https://mathsgee.com/resources/wp-content/plugins/h5p/h5p-php-library/js/h5p-resizer.js" charset="UTF-8"></script>Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/36132/interactive-quiz-are-you-data-science-savvyMon, 17 Jan 2022 11:32:12 +0000Interactive Quiz - How well do you know data science strategy?
https://mathsgee.com/36131/interactive-quiz-how-well-do-you-know-data-science-strategy
<p>Interactive Quiz - How well do you know data science strategy?</p>
<p> </p>
<p> </p>
<iframe src="https://mathsgee.com/resources/wp-admin/admin-ajax.php?action=h5p_embed&id=78" width="660" height="395" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen="allowfullscreen" title="Data Science Strategy Quiz"></iframe><script src="https://mathsgee.com/resources/wp-content/plugins/h5p/h5p-php-library/js/h5p-resizer.js" charset="UTF-8"></script>Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/36131/interactive-quiz-how-well-do-you-know-data-science-strategyMon, 17 Jan 2022 11:25:53 +0000Interactive Quiz - How well do you know data handling concepts?
https://mathsgee.com/36127/interactive-quiz-how-well-do-you-know-data-handling-concepts
<p>Interactive Quiz - How well do you know data handling concepts?</p>
<p> </p>
<p> </p>
<iframe src="https://mathsgee.com/resources/wp-admin/admin-ajax.php?action=h5p_embed&id=74" width="660" height="270" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen="allowfullscreen" title="Data Handling"></iframe><script src="https://mathsgee.com/resources/wp-content/plugins/h5p/h5p-php-library/js/h5p-resizer.js" charset="UTF-8"></script>Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/36127/interactive-quiz-how-well-do-you-know-data-handling-conceptsMon, 17 Jan 2022 10:44:54 +0000Answered: How is KNN different from k-means clustering?
https://mathsgee.com/16886/how-is-knn-different-from-k-means-clustering?show=36112#a36112
KNN is a classification algorithm which falls under the greedy techniques however k-means is a clustering algorithm (unsupervised machine learning technique).<br />
<br />
KNN is concerned with using the classes of neighbours as a basis for classification while k-means uses the mean value of a set of neighbouring records as a basis for clustering.Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/16886/how-is-knn-different-from-k-means-clustering?show=36112#a36112Mon, 17 Jan 2022 07:03:37 +0000Answered: A coin is tossed 3 times. What is the probability that the tosses are the same?
https://mathsgee.com/36054/coin-tossed-times-what-the-probability-that-the-tosses-same?show=36055#a36055
There are \(2^3=8\) possible outcomes after tossing a fair coin fairly 3 times. The 8 possible outcomes are: TTT, HTT, THT, TTH, HHT, HTH, THH, HHH. Exactly 2 of 8 possible outcomes result in \(\mathbf{3}\) of the same faces showing up. They are TTT and HHH. Each has a probability of \(\dfrac{1}{8}\) of happening and since either showing up satisfactorily addresses the criterion for success, the probability as requested \(=2 \times (\dfrac{1}{8})=\dfrac{1}{4}=.25\) \(=25 \%\).Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/36054/coin-tossed-times-what-the-probability-that-the-tosses-same?show=36055#a36055Sun, 16 Jan 2022 05:29:47 +0000Answered: Suppose a coin is tossed 3 times. What is the probability of obtaining exactly one head?
https://mathsgee.com/36052/suppose-coin-tossed-times-what-probability-obtaining-exactly?show=36053#a36053
P(One head exactly) \(=\dfrac{1}{2} \times \dfrac{1}{2} \times \dfrac{1}{2} \times \dfrac{3}{8} \)<br />
<br />
The first \(\dfrac{1}{2} \) is the probability of getting a head. The other two halfs are the probability of NOT getting a head. The 3 is because the head could appear on either the first OR second OR third throw.Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/36052/suppose-coin-tossed-times-what-probability-obtaining-exactly?show=36053#a36053Sun, 16 Jan 2022 05:27:09 +0000Answered: You get curl: (56) TCP connection reset by peer. What steps will you take to solve this problem?
https://mathsgee.com/2857/connection-reset-peer-what-steps-will-take-solve-this-problem?show=36025#a36025
<h2>Introduction</h2>
<p>The remote server has sent you a RST packet, which indicates an immediate dropping of the connection, rather than the usual handshake.</p>
<h2>Possible Causes</h2>
<p>A. <strong>TCP/IP</strong></p>
<p>It might be a TCP/IP issue you need to resolve with your host or upgrade your OS most times connection is closed with remote server before it finished downloading the content resulting in <code>Connection reset by peer</code>.....</p>
<p>B. <strong>Kernel Bug</strong></p>
<p>Note that there are some issues with TCP window scaling on some Linux kernels after v2.6.17. See the following bug reports for more information:</p>
<p><a href="https://bugs.launchpad.net/ubuntu/+source/linux-source-2.6.17/+bug/59331" rel="nofollow noreferrer">https://bugs.launchpad.net/ubuntu/+source/linux-source-2.6.17/+bug/59331</a></p>
<p><a href="https://bugs.launchpad.net/ubuntu/+source/linux-source-2.6.20/+bug/89160" rel="nofollow noreferrer">https://bugs.launchpad.net/ubuntu/+source/linux-source-2.6.20/+bug/89160</a></p>
<p>C. <strong>PHP & CURL Bug</strong></p>
<p>You are using <code>PHP/5.3.3</code> which has some serious bugs too ... I would advise you to work with a more recent version of <code>PHP</code> and <code>CURL</code></p>
<p><a href="https://bugs.php.net/bug.php?id=52828" rel="nofollow noreferrer">https://bugs.php.net/bug.php?id=52828</a></p>
<p><a href="https://bugs.php.net/bug.php?id=52827" rel="nofollow noreferrer">https://bugs.php.net/bug.php?id=52827</a></p>
<p><a href="https://bugs.php.net/bug.php?id=52202" rel="nofollow noreferrer">https://bugs.php.net/bug.php?id=52202</a></p>
<p><a href="https://bugs.php.net/bug.php?id=50410" rel="nofollow noreferrer">https://bugs.php.net/bug.php?id=50410</a></p>
<p>D. <strong>Maximum Transmission Unit</strong></p>
<p>One common cause of this error is that the MTU (Maximum Transmission Unit) size of packets travelling over your network connection has been changed from the default of 1500 bytes. If you have configured a <code>VPN</code> this most likely must changed during configuration</p>
<p>D. <strong>Firewall: iptables</strong></p>
<p>If you don't know your way around these guys they can cause some serious issues .. try and access the server you are connecting to check the following</p>
<ul>
<li>You have access to port 80 on that server</li>
</ul>
<p>Example</p>
<pre>
<code> -A RH-Firewall-1-INPUT -m state --state NEW -m tcp -p tcp --dport 80 -j ACCEPT`
</code></pre>
<ul>
<li>The Following is at the last line not before any other ACCEPT</li>
</ul>
<p>Example</p>
<pre>
<code> -A RH-Firewall-1-INPUT -j REJECT --reject-with icmp-host-prohibited
</code></pre>
<ul>
<li>
<p>Check for ALL DROP, REJECT and make sure they are not blocking your connection</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>Temporary allow all connection as see if it foes through</p>
</li>
</ul>
<h2>Experiment</h2>
<p>Try on a different server or on a remote server ( So many free cloud hosting online) and test the same script. If it works then my guesses are correct ... <code>You need to update your system</code></p>
<h2>Others Code Related</h2>
<p>A. <strong>SSL</strong></p>
<p>If <code>Yii::app()->params['pdfUrl']</code> is a url with <code>https</code> not including proper SSL settings can also cause this error in old version of curl</p>
<p>Resolution: Make sure OpenSSL is installed and enabled then add this to your code</p>
<pre>
<code>curl_setopt($c, CURLOPT_SSL_VERIFYPEER, false);
curl_setopt($c, CURLOPT_SSL_VERIFYHOST, false);</code></pre>Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/2857/connection-reset-peer-what-steps-will-take-solve-this-problem?show=36025#a36025Sun, 16 Jan 2022 01:27:35 +0000Answered: Which one of the following refers to using two or more sources of data or multiple data collection methods within one study?
https://mathsgee.com/33516/following-refers-sources-multiple-collection-methods-within?show=36022#a36022
<p><strong>Mixed Method</strong></p>
<p> </p>
<p>Mixed method research design is when a researcher uses two or more sources of data or multiple data collection methods within one study.</p>
<p>It is formally defined as a procedure for collecting, analyzing, and "mixing" both quantitative and qualitative research and methods in a single study to understand a research problem.</p>
<p> </p>
<p> </p>Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/33516/following-refers-sources-multiple-collection-methods-within?show=36022#a36022Sun, 16 Jan 2022 01:01:16 +0000Answered: What are the two types of numerical data?
https://mathsgee.com/36019/what-are-the-two-types-of-numerical-data?show=36020#a36020
Numerical data can take 2 different forms, namely; discrete data, which represents countable items and continuous data, which represents data measurement. The continuous type of numerical data is further subdivided into interval and ratio data, which is known to be used for measuring items.Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/36019/what-are-the-two-types-of-numerical-data?show=36020#a36020Sat, 15 Jan 2022 04:52:55 +0000Answered: What are 4 types of data?
https://mathsgee.com/36017/what-are-4-types-of-data?show=36018#a36018
In statistics, there are four data measurement scales: nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio. These are simply ways to sub-categorize different types of data (here's an overview of statistical data types).Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/36017/what-are-4-types-of-data?show=36018#a36018Sat, 15 Jan 2022 04:52:09 +0000Answered: What is categorical and numerical data?
https://mathsgee.com/36015/what-is-categorical-and-numerical-data?show=36016#a36016
Categorical data is a type of data that is used to group information with similar characteristics while Numerical data is a type of data that expresses information in the form of numbers.Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/36015/what-is-categorical-and-numerical-data?show=36016#a36016Sat, 15 Jan 2022 04:51:26 +0000Answered: Is zip code a categorical variable?
https://mathsgee.com/36013/is-zip-code-a-categorical-variable?show=36014#a36014
Data are generally recorded values of variables.... Some variables, such as social security numbers and zip codes, take numerical values, but are not quantitative: They are qualitative or categorical variables. The sum of two zip codes or social security numbers is not meaningful.Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/36013/is-zip-code-a-categorical-variable?show=36014#a36014Sat, 15 Jan 2022 04:50:22 +0000Answered: Is weight categorical or quantitative?
https://mathsgee.com/36011/is-weight-categorical-or-quantitative?show=36012#a36012
Quantitative variables are any variables where the data represent amounts (e.g. height, weight, or age).<br />
Categorical variables are any variables where the data represent groups.Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/36011/is-weight-categorical-or-quantitative?show=36012#a36012Sat, 15 Jan 2022 04:49:27 +0000Answered: What do you mean by categorical data?
https://mathsgee.com/36009/what-do-you-mean-by-categorical-data?show=36010#a36010
1 : absolute, unqualified a categorical denial. \(2 a\) : of, relating to, or constituting a category. \(b\) : involving, according with, or considered with respect to specific categories a categorical system for classifying books.Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/36009/what-do-you-mean-by-categorical-data?show=36010#a36010Sat, 15 Jan 2022 04:48:19 +0000Answered: Is categorical data discrete?
https://mathsgee.com/36007/is-categorical-data-discrete?show=36008#a36008
Discrete data arise from observations that can only take certain numerical values, usually counts such as number of children or number of patients attending a clinic in a year. Ordered categorical data are sometimes treated as discrete data, this is wrong.Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/36007/is-categorical-data-discrete?show=36008#a36008Sat, 15 Jan 2022 04:47:27 +0000Answered: Is categorical data ordinal?
https://mathsgee.com/36005/is-categorical-data-ordinal?show=36006#a36006
Categorical variables are those that have discrete categories or levels. Categorical variables can be further defined as nominal, dichotomous, or ordinal. Nominal variables describe categories that do not have a specific order to them.... Ordinal variables have two are more categories that can be ordered or ranked.Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/36005/is-categorical-data-ordinal?show=36006#a36006Sat, 15 Jan 2022 04:46:44 +0000Answered: Is categorical data the same as qualitative?
https://mathsgee.com/36003/is-categorical-data-the-same-as-qualitative?show=36004#a36004
Qualitative data contains categorical variables and quantitative data contains numerical variables. Categorical variables come in nominal or ordinal flavours, whereas numerical variables can be discrete or continuous.Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/36003/is-categorical-data-the-same-as-qualitative?show=36004#a36004Sat, 15 Jan 2022 04:45:51 +0000Answered: What is Categorical Data?
https://mathsgee.com/36001/what-is-categorical-data?show=36002#a36002
<p><img alt="categorical data" src="https://mathsgee.com/?qa=blob&qa_blobid=6357467835581007149" style="height:206px; width:600px"></p>
<p> </p>
<p>Categorical data is a collection of information that is divided into groups. I.e, if an organisation or agency is trying to get a biodata of its employees, the resulting data is referred to as categorical. This data is called categorical because it may be grouped according to the variables present in the biodata such as sex, state of residence, etc.</p>
<p>
<br>
Categorical data can take on numerical values (such as "1" indicating Yes and " 2 " indicating No), but those numbers don't have mathematical meaning. One can neither add them together nor subtract them from each other.</p>
<p> </p>Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/36001/what-is-categorical-data?show=36002#a36002Sat, 15 Jan 2022 04:44:22 +0000Answered: Do I need to know Optimization and Operation Research Topics for data science?
https://mathsgee.com/35964/need-know-optimization-operation-research-topics-science?show=35965#a35965
<p>These topics are most relevant in specialized fields like theoretical computer science, control theory, or operation research. But a basic understanding of these powerful techniques can also be fruitful in the practice of machine learning. Virtually every machine-learning algorithm aims to minimize some kind of estimation error subject to various constraints-which is an optimization problem. Here are the topics to learn:
<br>
- Basics of optimization, how to formulate the problem
<br>
- Maxima, minima, convex function, global solution
<br>
- Linear programming, simplex algorithm
<br>
- Integer programming
<br>
- Constraint programming, knapsack problem
<br>
- Randomized optimization techniques: hill climbing, simulated annealing, genetic algorithms</p>
<p> </p>
<p><strong>Where You Might Use It</strong>
<br>
Simple linear regression problems using least-square loss function often have an exact analytical solution, but logistic regression problems don't. To understand the reason, you need to be familiar with the concept of "convexity" in optimization. This line of investigation will also illuminate why we must remain satisfied with "approximate" solutions in most machine-learning problems.</p>Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/35964/need-know-optimization-operation-research-topics-science?show=35965#a35965Sat, 15 Jan 2022 03:33:26 +0000Answered: Do I need to know discrete math for data science?
https://mathsgee.com/35962/do-i-need-to-know-discrete-math-for-data-science?show=35963#a35963
<p>This area is not discussed as often in data science, but all modern data science is done with the help of computational systems, and discrete math is at the heart of such systems. A refresher in discrete math will include concepts critical to daily use of algorithms and data structures in analytics project:
<br>
- Sets, subsets, power sets
<br>
- Counting functions, combinatorics, countability
<br>
- Basic proof techniques: induction, proof by contradiction
<br>
- Basics of inductive, deductive, and propositional logic
<br>
- Basic data structures: stacks, queues, graphs, arrays, hash tables, trees
<br>
- Graph properties: connected components, degree, maximum flow/minimum cut concepts, graph coloring
<br>
- Recurrence relations and equations
<br>
- Growth of functions and \(O(n)\) notation concept</p>
<p> </p>
<p><strong>Where You Might Use It</strong>
<br>
In any social network analysis, you need to know the properties of a graph and fast algorithm to search and traverse the network. In any choice of algorithm, you need to understand the time and space complexity - i.e., how the running time and space requirement grows with input data size, by using \(O(n)\) (Big-Oh) notation.</p>
<p> </p>Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/35962/do-i-need-to-know-discrete-math-for-data-science?show=35963#a35963Sat, 15 Jan 2022 03:31:58 +0000Answered: Do I need to know calculus for data science?
https://mathsgee.com/35960/do-i-need-to-know-calculus-for-data-science?show=35961#a35961
<p>Whether you loved or hated it in college, calculus pops up in numerous places in data science and machine learning. It lurks behind the simplelooking analytical solution of an ordinary least squares problem in linear regression or embedded in every back-propagation your neural network makes to learn a new pattern. It is an extremely valuable skill to add to your repertoire. Here are the topics to learn:
<br>
- Functions of a single variable, limit, continuity, differentiability
<br>
- Mean value theorems, indeterminate forms, L'Hospital's rule
<br>
- Maxima and minima
<br>
- Product and chain rule
<br>
- Taylor's series, infinite series summation/integration concepts
<br>
- Fundamental and mean value-theorems of integral calculus, evaluation of definite and improper integrals
<br>
- Beta and gamma functions
<br>
- Functions of multiple variables, limit, continuity, partial derivatives
<br>
- Basics of ordinary and partial differential equations</p>
<p> </p>
<p><strong>Where You Might Use It</strong>
<br>
Ever wondered how exactly a logistic regression algorithm is implemented? There is a high chance it uses a method called "gradient descent" to find the minimum loss function. To understand how this works, you need to use concepts from calculus: gradient, derivatives, limits, and chain rule.</p>
<p> </p>Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/35960/do-i-need-to-know-calculus-for-data-science?show=35961#a35961Sat, 15 Jan 2022 03:30:25 +0000Answered: Do I need to know linear algebra for data science?
https://mathsgee.com/35958/do-i-need-to-know-linear-algebra-for-data-science?show=35959#a35959
<p>This is an essential branch of mathematics for understanding how machinelearning algorithms work on a stream of data to create insight. Everything from friend suggestions on Facebook, to song recommendations on Spotify, to transferring your selfie to a Salvador Dali-style portrait using deep transfer learning involves matrices and matrix algebra. Here are the essential topics to learn:</p>
<p>- Basic properties of matrix and vectors: scalar multiplication, linear transformation, transpose, conjugate, rank, determinant
<br>
- Inner and outer products, matrix multiplication rule and various algorithms, matrix inverse
<br>
- Special matrices: square matrix, identity matrix, triangular matrix, idea about sparse and dense matrix, unit vectors, symmetric matrix, Hermitian, skew-Hermitian and unitary matrices
<br>
- Matrix factorization concept/LU decomposition, Gaussian/GaussJordan elimination, solving \(\mathrm{Ax}=\mathrm{b}\) linear system of equation
<br>
- Vector space, basis, span, orthogonality, orthonormality, linear least square
<br>
- Eigenvalues, eigenvectors, diagonalization, singular value decomposition</p>
<p> </p>
<p><strong>Where You Might Use It</strong>
<br>
If you have used the dimensionality reduction technique principal component analysis, then you have likely used the singular value decomposition to achieve a compact dimension representation of your data set with fewer parameters. All neural network algorithms use linear algebra techniques to represent and process network structures and learning operations.</p>Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/35958/do-i-need-to-know-linear-algebra-for-data-science?show=35959#a35959Sat, 15 Jan 2022 03:28:55 +0000Answered: Do I need to know statistics for data science?
https://mathsgee.com/35956/do-i-need-to-know-statistics-for-data-science?show=35957#a35957
<p>The importance of having a solid grasp over essential concepts of statistics and probability cannot be overstated. Many practitioners in the field actually consider classical (non-neural network) machine learning to be nothing but statistical learning. The subject is vast, and focused planning is critical to cover the most essential concepts:
<br>
- Data summaries and descriptive statistics, central tendency, variance, covariance, correlation
<br>
- Basic probability: basic idea, expectation, probability calculus, Bayes' theorem, conditional probability
<br>
- Probability distribution functions: uniform, normal, binomial, chisquare, Student's t-distribution, central limit theorem
<br>
- Sampling, measurement, error, random number generation
<br>
- Hypothesis testing, A/B testing, confidence intervals, p-values
<br>
- ANOVA, t-test
<br>
- Linear regression, regularization</p>
<p> </p>
<p><strong>Where You Might Use It</strong>
<br>
In interviews. If you can show you've mastered these concepts, you will impress the other side of the table fast. And you will use them nearly every day as a data scientist.</p>Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/35956/do-i-need-to-know-statistics-for-data-science?show=35957#a35957Sat, 15 Jan 2022 03:26:48 +0000Answered: Do I need to know Functions, Variables, Equations, and Graphs for data science?
https://mathsgee.com/35954/need-know-functions-variables-equations-graphs-data-science?show=35955#a35955
<p>This area of math covers the basics, from the equation of a line to the binomial theorem and everything in between:
<br>
- Logarithm, exponential, polynomial functions, rational numbers
<br>
- Basic geometry and theorems, trigonometric identities
<br>
- Real and complex numbers, basic properties
<br>
- Series, sums, inequalities
<br>
- Graphing and plotting, Cartesian and polar coordinates, conic sections</p>
<p> </p>
<p><strong>Where You Might Use It</strong>
<br>
If you want to understand how a search runs faster on a million-item database after you've sorted it, you will come across the concept of "binary search." To understand the dynamics of it, you need to understand logarithms and recurrence equations. Or, if you want to analyze a time series, you may come across concepts like "periodic functions" and "exponential decay."</p>Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/35954/need-know-functions-variables-equations-graphs-data-science?show=35955#a35955Sat, 15 Jan 2022 03:25:27 +0000How has data analytics for decision-making evolved over time?
https://mathsgee.com/35891/how-has-data-analytics-for-decision-making-evolved-over-time
How has data analytics for decision-making evolved over time?Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/35891/how-has-data-analytics-for-decision-making-evolved-over-timeSat, 15 Jan 2022 00:47:16 +0000Answered: What are the four levels of analytics and data maturity?
https://mathsgee.com/35882/what-are-the-four-levels-of-analytics-and-data-maturity?show=35890#a35890
<p>To effectively use data to better support decision making you can use four methods of analysing data which are sometimes called the 4 levels of data maturity as defined by Gartner.</p>
<p>The four levels are:</p>
<ul>
<li>descriptive</li>
<li>diagnostic</li>
<li>predictive</li>
<li>prescriptive.</li>
</ul>Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/35882/what-are-the-four-levels-of-analytics-and-data-maturity?show=35890#a35890Sat, 15 Jan 2022 00:44:01 +0000Answered: What is the impact of data analytics on leader and manager decisions?
https://mathsgee.com/35881/what-the-impact-data-analytics-leader-and-manager-decisions?show=35889#a35889
The impact of data analytics on leader and manager decisions is as follows:<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
Vision and strategy should be informed by data. Leaders need to use data for their interventions to motivate and build their employees.Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/35881/what-the-impact-data-analytics-leader-and-manager-decisions?show=35889#a35889Fri, 14 Jan 2022 11:52:04 +0000Answered: What is attitudinal data?
https://mathsgee.com/35887/what-is-attitudinal-data?show=35888#a35888
Attitudinal data describes how someone things or feels about things. The data includes variables like: money; child-rearing; politics; ...Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/35887/what-is-attitudinal-data?show=35888#a35888Fri, 14 Jan 2022 11:47:43 +0000Answered: What is the point of collecting demographic data?
https://mathsgee.com/35885/what-is-the-point-of-collecting-demographic-data?show=35886#a35886
Demographic data is very important for descriptive data analysis. The data allows us to understand the typical data of respondents with insights into the shape and distrubution of the data.<br />
<br />
It is always important to calculate the measures of central tendency and those of dispersion.<br />
<br />
Demographic data can also be include in hypothesis tests as they are used for medoration and mediation.Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/35885/what-is-the-point-of-collecting-demographic-data?show=35886#a35886Fri, 14 Jan 2022 11:45:25 +0000Answered: What are examples of demographic data?
https://mathsgee.com/35883/what-are-examples-of-demographic-data?show=35884#a35884
<p>Examples of demographic data are:</p>
<ol>
<li>Gender</li>
<li>Age</li>
<li>Marital status</li>
<li>Number of children</li>
<li>Income</li>
<li>City</li>
<li>Country</li>
</ol>Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/35883/what-are-examples-of-demographic-data?show=35884#a35884Fri, 14 Jan 2022 11:41:58 +0000Answered: What are examples of transactional data for marketers?
https://mathsgee.com/35879/what-are-examples-of-transactional-data-for-marketers?show=35880#a35880
<p>By definition, transactional data is information that has been captured during the diferent phases of a given transaction. Examples of the data captured are:</p>
<ul>
<li>Who bought?</li>
<li>Where?</li>
<li>What did they buy?</li>
<li>How often do they buy?</li>
<li>When did they buy?</li>
<li>How much did they buy?</li>
<li>How did they pay?</li>
<li>Did they get discounts?</li>
</ul>Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/35879/what-are-examples-of-transactional-data-for-marketers?show=35880#a35880Fri, 14 Jan 2022 11:32:40 +0000Answered: What are the components of the big architecture?
https://mathsgee.com/35876/what-are-the-components-of-the-big-architecture?show=35877#a35877
The common components of big data architecture are:<br />
&raquo;Data sources<br />
"Data storage<br />
&raquo;Batch processing<br />
&raquo;Message ingestion<br />
&raquo;Stream processing<br />
&raquo; Analytical data store<br />
"Analysis and reportingData Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/35876/what-are-the-components-of-the-big-architecture?show=35877#a35877Fri, 14 Jan 2022 10:59:03 +0000Are causal connections the product of observations as articulated by David Hume in the Treatise of Human Nature?
https://mathsgee.com/35488/connections-product-observations-articulated-treatise-nature
<p>Are causal connections the product of observations as articulated by David Hume in the Treatise of Human Nature?</p>
<p> </p>
<p><img alt="david hume causality" src="https://mathsgee.com/?qa=blob&qa_blobid=14722281958203975210" style="height:449px; width:600px"></p>Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/35488/connections-product-observations-articulated-treatise-natureWed, 12 Jan 2022 11:04:48 +0000"The rooster's crow does not cause the sun to rise". How can I represent this statement mathematically?
https://mathsgee.com/35487/roosters-crow-does-cause-represent-statement-mathematically
<p>"The rooster's crow does not cause the sun to rise". How can I represent this statement mathematically?</p>
<p> </p>
<p> </p>
<p><img alt="rooster" src="https://mathsgee.com/?qa=blob&qa_blobid=1699331364421429475" style="height:418px; width:600px"></p>Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/35487/roosters-crow-does-cause-represent-statement-mathematicallyWed, 12 Jan 2022 10:26:41 +0000Answered: Why is Judea Pearl's "Book of Why" so important to data science and artificial intelligence?
https://mathsgee.com/35485/judea-pearls-book-important-science-artificial-intelligence?show=35486#a35486
<p>The blurb on <a href="https://www.amazon.com/Book-Why-Science-Cause-Effect/dp/046509760X" rel="nofollow"><strong>Amazon</strong></a> does justice to your question. Pearl, a Turing Award-winning computer scientist, philosopher and statistician shows the world how understanding causality has revolutionized science and is disrupting data science and artificial intelligence.</p>
<p> </p>
<p>"Correlation is not causation." This mantra, chanted by scientists for more than a century, has led to a virtual prohibition on causal talk. Today, that taboo is dead.</p>
<p> </p>
<p>The causal revolution, instigated by Judea Pearl and his colleagues, has cut through a century of confusion and established causality - the study of cause and effect - on a firm scientific basis. His work explains how we can know easy things, like whether it was rain or a sprinkler that made a sidewalk wet; and how to answer hard questions, like whether a drug cured an illness.</p>
<p> </p>
<p>Pearl's work enables us to know not just whether one thing causes another: it lets us explore the world that is and the worlds that could have been. It shows us the essence of human thought and key to artificial intelligence. Anyone who wants to understand either needs The Book of Why.</p>
<p> </p>
<p> </p>
<p> </p>Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/35485/judea-pearls-book-important-science-artificial-intelligence?show=35486#a35486Wed, 12 Jan 2022 10:15:55 +0000Answered: What is research operationalization?
https://mathsgee.com/35483/what-is-research-operationalization?show=35484#a35484
Operationalization means turning abstract conceptual ideas into measurable observations.<br />
For example, the concept of social anxiety isn't directly observable, but it can be operationally defined in terms of self-rating scores, behavioral avoidance of crowded places, or physical anxiety symptoms in social situations.<br />
<br />
Before collecting data, it's important to consider how you will operationalize the variables that you want to measure.Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/35483/what-is-research-operationalization?show=35484#a35484Wed, 12 Jan 2022 09:47:23 +0000Answered: If my research aim is "Evaluating and acting", what are examples of research question formulations?
https://mathsgee.com/35481/research-evaluating-examples-research-question-formulations?show=35482#a35482
- What are the advantages and disadvantages of \(X\) ?<br />
- How effective is \(X\) ?<br />
- How can \(X\) be achieved?<br />
- What are the most effective strategies to improve \(X\) ?<br />
- How can \(X\) be used in \(Y\) ?Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/35481/research-evaluating-examples-research-question-formulations?show=35482#a35482Wed, 12 Jan 2022 09:43:46 +0000Answered: If my research aim is "Explaining and testing", what are examples of research question formulations?
https://mathsgee.com/35479/research-explaining-examples-research-question-formulations?show=35480#a35480
- What is the relationship between \(X\) and \(Y\) ?<br />
- What is the role of \(X\) in \(Y\) ?<br />
- What is the impact of \(X\) on \(Y\) ?<br />
- How does \(X\) influence \(Y\) ?<br />
- What are the causes of \(X\) ?Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/35479/research-explaining-examples-research-question-formulations?show=35480#a35480Wed, 12 Jan 2022 09:42:08 +0000Answered: If my research aim is "Describing and explaining", what are examples of research question formulations?
https://mathsgee.com/35477/research-describing-explaining-examples-research-formulations?show=35478#a35478
- What are the characteristics of \(X\) ?<br />
- How has \(X\) changed over time?<br />
- What are the main factors in \(X\) ?<br />
- How does \(X\) experience \(Y\) ?<br />
- How has \(X\) dealt with \(Y\) ?Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/35477/research-describing-explaining-examples-research-formulations?show=35478#a35478Wed, 12 Jan 2022 09:40:46 +0000What is sampling error?
https://mathsgee.com/35476/what-is-sampling-error
What is sampling error?Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/35476/what-is-sampling-errorWed, 12 Jan 2022 09:36:33 +0000Answered: What is the difference between statistic and parameter? These words really crack my head!
https://mathsgee.com/15926/difference-between-statistic-parameter-these-words-really?show=35475#a35475
A statistic refers to measures about the sample, while a parameter refers to measures about the population.Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/15926/difference-between-statistic-parameter-these-words-really?show=35475#a35475Wed, 12 Jan 2022 09:36:03 +0000Answered: When are populations used in research?
https://mathsgee.com/35473/when-are-populations-used-in-research?show=35474#a35474
Populations are used when a research question requires data from every member of the population. This is usually only feasible when the population is small and easily accessible.Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/35473/when-are-populations-used-in-research?show=35474#a35474Wed, 12 Jan 2022 09:35:03 +0000Answered: Why are samples used in research?
https://mathsgee.com/35471/why-are-samples-used-in-research?show=35472#a35472
Samples are used to make inferences about populations. Samples are easier to collect data from because they are practical, cost-effective, convenient and manageable.Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/35471/why-are-samples-used-in-research?show=35472#a35472Wed, 12 Jan 2022 09:34:14 +0000Answered: What are the types of extraneous variables?
https://mathsgee.com/35469/what-are-the-types-of-extraneous-variables?show=35470#a35470
There are 4 main types of extraneous variables:<br />
<br />
- Demand characteristics: environmental cues that encourage participants to conform to researchers' expectations.<br />
<br />
- Experimenter effects: unintentional actions by researchers that influence study outcomes.<br />
<br />
- Situational variables: environmental variables that alter participants' behaviors.<br />
<br />
- Participant variables: any characteristic or aspect of a participant's background that could affect study results.Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/35469/what-are-the-types-of-extraneous-variables?show=35470#a35470Wed, 12 Jan 2022 09:32:23 +0000Answered: What does "controlling for a variable" mean?
https://mathsgee.com/35467/what-does-controlling-for-a-variable-mean?show=35468#a35468
"Controlling for a variable" means measuring extraneous variables and accounting for them statistically to remove their effects on other variables.<br />
<br />
Researchers often model control variable data along with independent and dependent variable data in regression analyses and ANCOVAs. That way, you can isolate the control variable's effects from the relationship between the variables of interest.Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/35467/what-does-controlling-for-a-variable-mean?show=35468#a35468Wed, 12 Jan 2022 09:30:35 +0000Answered: What is internal validity?
https://mathsgee.com/35465/what-is-internal-validity?show=35466#a35466
Internal validity is the extent to which you can be confident that a cause-and-effect relationship established in a study cannot be explained by other factors.Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/35465/what-is-internal-validity?show=35466#a35466Wed, 12 Jan 2022 09:29:33 +0000Answered: Why are control variables important in statistical research?
https://mathsgee.com/35463/why-are-control-variables-important-statistical-research?show=35464#a35464
Control variables help you establish a correlational or causal relationship between variables by enhancing internal validity.<br />
<br />
If you don't control relevant extraneous variables, they may influence the outcomes of your study, and you may not be able to demonstrate that your results are really an effect of your independent variable.Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/35463/why-are-control-variables-important-statistical-research?show=35464#a35464Wed, 12 Jan 2022 09:28:38 +0000Answered: What is a control variable?
https://mathsgee.com/35461/what-is-a-control-variable?show=35462#a35462
A control variable is any variable that's held constant in a research study. It's not a variable of interest in the study, but it's controlled because it could influence the outcomes.Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/35461/what-is-a-control-variable?show=35462#a35462Wed, 12 Jan 2022 09:27:06 +0000Answered: How do I prevent confounding variables from interfering with my research?
https://mathsgee.com/35459/prevent-confounding-variables-from-interfering-research?show=35460#a35460
There are several methods you can use to decrease the impact of confounding variables on your research: restriction, matching, statistical control and randomization.<br />
<br />
In restriction, you restrict your sample by only including certain subjects that have the same values of potential confounding variables.<br />
<br />
In matching, you match each of the subjects in your treatment group with a counterpart in the comparison group. The matched subjects have the same values on any potential confounding variables, and only differ in the independent variable.<br />
<br />
In statistical control, you include potential confounders as variables in your regression.<br />
In randomization, you randomly assign the treatment (or independent variable) in your study to a sufficiently large number of subjects, which allows you to control for all potential confounding variables.Data Science & Statisticshttps://mathsgee.com/35459/prevent-confounding-variables-from-interfering-research?show=35460#a35460Wed, 12 Jan 2022 09:25:50 +0000